You should read Kris Manjapra’s book on M.N. Roy

I’ve spent the day thinking about what Roy must have felt like being expelled from the Comintern for arguing, in part, that it was possible for British colonialism to end without a revolution; that the British bourgeoisie would settle accounts with the Indian bourgeoisie and set them up as rulers; that the new arrangement would not mean a massive change in the social structure in India, but would rather help British capitalism restore itself after the crisis it faced after WWI; that Indian Communists should work inside the Congress Party and move its base to the left and chase the capitalists out (he got that last one wrong) … that he saw all of that in 1928, and had the misfortune of presenting that argument at the Sixth Congress of the Comintern right as the Russian Communist Party was licking its wounds over the massive debacle (to put it lightly) of how it dealt with the Kuomintang and the massacre of the Chinese Communists; that he was a casualty of the retrenchment that happened after 1928 only to have the Comintern reverse its position in 1935.  What it must have felt like to have helped to establish the Mexican Communist Party, debated with and convinced Lenin on the national question, gone to Germany and worked with the SpartakistBund, been the Comintern envoy in China, set up a base in Tashkent to train Indian Communists (largely Muslims) … and then be expelled by the Comintern … and then be proven right.  Manjapra’s book does an excellent job making sense of all of this.

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